While universities are being encouraged to adopt open research policy and publish publically funded research to open repositories it seems contradictory that no similar policy is in place for learning materials
If education is a public good we should be doing all we can to open up opportunities for learning
I think these principles usefully underline the fact that a major culture shift is needed. The ‘capacity building’ highlighted in point e) in terms of engaging and supporting educators to do this is vital.
Thanks Linda. Absolutely agree that we need a major culture shift to really embed open education practice in Scotland. Do you think the declaration should explicitly put more emphasis on culture shift and capacity building?
It certainly wouldn’t do any harm to highlight it. It’s important across Scottish education as a whole, as well as within institutions.
Lorna M. Campbell, Assistant Director, Cetis.
For me, this is the key paragraph. Educating people to play a role in democracy is a fundamental part of education.
Absolutely agree Doug. The wording in this paragraph was heavily influenced by various strategy documents issued by the Scottish Government, so hopefully it’s very much in line with their vision for education in Scotland.
For inclusion could this document be changed into a sans serif font
It is to be hoped that we can learn from initiatives such as Glow and address constraining local barriers to using technology effectively as a nation, and to share good practice and resources sensibly without a ‘monetisation of knowledge’ agenda.
The advent of MOOCs has definitely shown us that open online resources do work but I’m not clear on the business models of such and what the long-term future of MOOCs (and SPOCs) are. I guess what MOOCs have shown us is the principle of “safety in numbers” holds true – because major players in the States got involved the rest of us followed. If the Europeans were all in it together then it would work, i.e. make it so wide-spread that NOT to be involved would be viewed as bad thing. Most universities have philanthropic ventures in action so to play under this label would be easy, but the Commission is not really looking at developing countries or ability to afford.
I wonder if it would be useful to say something regarding rethinking copyright in the digital age? What educators are permitted to do under fair use within a classroom environment is considerably less restrictive than via online or recorded media, yet we move increasingly towards digital delivery of many resources. While I’m not suggesting that original authors shouldn’t be credited (or paid), content not already licenced for re-use is a huge can of worms for many institutions. Copyright legislation can be dated and doesn’t reflect changing cultural attitudes towards openness.
Hi Lorraine, there doesn’t seem to be any simple way to change the font on CommentPress, but I will keep looking into it.
Equal consideration of open source software in procurement decisions would have been a nice one to add, though I guess the focus is on educational content.
Agree with Joe’s point and suggest it’s fair to reflect the historical position of education in Scotland as a public good and not something to which access depends on ability to pay
Agree this is a key para. Woud it carry more weight through reversing the order of the sentences, so expanding access comes earlier and through adding a point about the economic case for open education i.e. it’s not just a ‘good thing’ to do – there is also a sound economic case in tne return on public money spent
Perhaps worth making the point at the start of this para that open education is mainly about changing culture rather than technology although progress in educational technology is a key enabler and reason for highlighting the poential for and benefits of action now.
Would be good to include some refs in these principles to the importance of actvity being cross-sectoral wherever possible e.g. for tools and technologies, so that everything is designed to facilitate and enable sharing within and across sectors rather than just within.
Perhaps some additional functions are worth mentioning (probably not as many as listed below)?
“…tools and technologies to
[insert] create, edit, repurpose, combine, extract, describe, rate, track, monitor, style, abstract, recode, package, test, index, optimize,
find, retrieve and share…”
Not sure on the development of tools aspect, but definitely supporting open formats is good.
(Some other issues related to tools…if I stick a CC license on a file that can only be opened using some very expensive proprietary software is it an OER? If I distribute a file under a CC-BY (not ND) license that is flagged to the software (e.g. Acrobat) to make it locked and non-editable, is it still OER?)
Indeed re: proprietary and non-editable. And although a format may technically be open (like a PNG image), if it is used inappropriately (like a scan of text), the lack of accessibility and editability may render it closed. Or HTML files emitted by some proprietary tool may be effectively uneditable in other tools.
So, in addition to open standards, would a mention of “best practices” be helpful in this paragraph?
Whilst this point is very valid and important, I think it is significant that technology should not be the driver in open education. Although acknowledging it plays a key role in facilitating education, investment, I feel, has to be based on sound pedagogical principles in conjunction with the benefits that open education offers and the clear need for culture change emphasised in this declaration.
By example, I would regard ploughing money into institutions to cater for learners to be provided with their own mobile devices as a ‘solution’ that puts forethought into the technology as opposed to deriving the need for it from whatever the underpinning pedagogical requirements may be.
I’d be happy to add something about encouraging the procurement of open source software in education. Do you think you could draft a sentence and I’ll add it to the declaration?
In the sense that technology means systematic know-how (rather than simply hardware and software), I suggest that technology will be the primary enabler of open education. A recent post on open source software <http://www.techrepublic.com/article/open-souce-developers-must-examine-the-past-to-invent-the-future/#ftag=RSS56d97e7> presents the view that open is not enough; your overall system architecture needs portability, interoperability, decentralization, modularity, layers, separation of concerns, a crucial reduction in effort.
In the past, the technology that allowed printing of paperback books contributed hugely to an expansion of educational opportunities. Today, the enabling technology is largely digital.
So I think that the first sentence-and-a-half of this paragraph makes these points well. And in the rest, you are going to need broadband for video and mobile for low-point-entry access. I would hope, however, that we will still be providing OERs and educational services that can be used by parts of the world without broadband and smartphones, like <http://www.etekkatho.mimas.ac.uk/about-us/>.
I agree with James’ point about buying mobile devices for students as being a questionable investment, but the trend may be for bringing your own device (BYOD), in which case the best practice approach is to make the content as device-independent as possible. And this takes technical know-how. I suggest that publishing technologists will be providing a layer of software and services (“facilitate enabling environments”) that content authors will create on top of.
Maybe, as it takes a village to raise a child, it takes a community of different specialists (speaking the same language of digital literacy) to create successful OERs.
x. Promote the adoption of procurement policies that give equal consideration to open source software and openly licensed materials, and support the development in education and related sectors of processes and practices to provide a level playing field for open source software and open education resources in procurement
An example of a tool that might be developed: BUFVC Audiovisual Citation Generator, an unofficial, unfinished effort based on unstable HTML5 specifications and unclear browser support. The citation rules are, however, reasonably stable (“will be reviewed periodically”). BUFVC said that they did not have the capacity to undertake such a development themselves.
Thanks Scott! I’ll add that.
OER Foundation & UNESCO/COL/ICDE Chair in OER endorses these principles.
Peter Suber, director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication and Harvard Open Access Project
Sheila MacNeill, Senior Lecturer, Glasgow Caledonian University.
Good point Martyn think that change would be effective
Head of New Ventures
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Senior Learning Technologist
City of Glasgow College
I agree with Martyn. It’s not about technology per se. Sometimes the explicit reference almost drives a wedge between learning and ‘e’-learning. Perhaps we could leave out ‘technology supported’ and say:
Scotland has long been at the forefront of education innovation and there are many examples of pioneering open education developments across all sectors of Scottish education.
Technology itself isn’t a driver but those learners without access are disadvantaged. This point is addressing access not delivery. The pedagogy is irrelevant without the option, without access.
That was meant to be in paragraph 5.
Advisor, Jisc RSC Scotland
Manager Jisc RSC Scotland
Assistant Director, CETIS
Professor of Learning Technology
Glasgow Caledonian University
Just one thing… replace “Open Source Software” with “Free and Open Source Software” or I’ll be in trouble 🙂
Done! Sorry it took me so long to get round to adding this to the Declaration :}
I made this point in a paper recently about education in Scotland being seen as a shared common good where the benefits are seen to accrue to society, the reviewer asked for the evidence of this distinct political difference between the private good private benefit model that is implied by tuition fees etc, perhaps these statements add to the evidence base
Agree, emphasising the social justice WP aspects are key
I would like to see this pulled back from the technology aspects, technology as in technique and/or approaches in its broadest sense, yes. I suppose I am suggesting a broader reading of tech(ology/nique) probably more in line with Martyn’s comment
Lorna, I think those changes in customs and practices are key. The comments and the tone of the document seems to me about building on and reinforcing our culture of understanding education as a common good, so a focus on customs and practice would be useful. I am not sure whether this the document wants to emphasise the paradigm shift (Linda “major cultural shift”), or the evolution, building on a culture (common good), it is an interesting question
This for me is very important, it is not just about HE providers opening up content, it is about opening up practices.
I have in the past myself argued that the digital is the medium of exchange the message is about openness. At the same time acknowledging that access to the means of exchange is still constrained, and not just by available infrastructure, it is a tricky one
I think these alliances are not just about using technology. Alliances and sharing are about common goals, going back to the “common good”.
On a purely practical level what I have found is that Scotland is a wee place, people know each other and those networks, we can do things in Scotland because of our scale that people might struggle to elsewhere. It seems to be about communities.
Rather than specify in the last part might be it better to have across all sectors and at all levels.
Learning and Teaching Coordinator
The Open University in Scotland
Have you considered moving beyond the UNESCO standard into one with a stronger commitment to openness? In this paragraph, the most troubling part is the “any restrictions deemed necessary” provision – it would be good to have a clear open standard to which Scottish institutions can commit. If CC BY / CC BY SA cannot be committed to, then maybe at least it can be recommended as best practice?
Educator seconded to the Scottish Government
The European Commission Open Up Education Initiative web address has changed to http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/initiative
To match with David Wylies’s 5R’s model http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/the-power-of-open-educational-resources-32336823 then Retention should be included Retain: Make own copiesReuse: use in a wide range of waysRevise: adapt, modify and improveRemix: Combine two oe moreRedistribute: Share with others
Suggested by Joe Wilson, Martyn Ware and Ronald MacIntyre
Edits suggested by Martyn Ware and Sheila MacNeill
Additional paragraph suggested by Joe Wilson and Martyn Ware.
Additions suggested by Martyn Ware, Lee Ballantyne and Ronald MacIntyre.
Additions suggested by James Henderson, Tavis Reddick, Lee Ballantyne and Ronald MacIntyre.
Edits suggested by Bill Steele. ‘Retention’ added in line with Wiley’s revised 5Rs framework.
Adapted from POERUP policy recommendations for Scotland.
Edit suggested by Ronald MacIntyre.
Adopted from POERUP policy guidelines for Scotland.
Addition of CC BY suggested by Alek Tarkowski
‘Sustainable business models’ added from POERUP Guidelines.
Suggested by Scott Wilson and Tavis Reddick.
Added by Scott Wilson.
The Scottish Open Education Declaration 0.1 was endorsed by:
Lee Ballantyne, Senior Learning Technologist, City of Glasgow College.
Lorna M. Campbell, Assistant Director, Cetis.
Fionnuala Carmichael, Manager, Jisc RSC Scotland.
Linda Creanor, Professor of Learning Technology, Glasgow Caledonian University.
Wilbert Kraan, Assistant Director, Cetis.
Ronald Macintyre, Learning and Teaching Coordinator, The Open University in Scotland.
Wayne Mackintosh, OER Foundation & UNESCO/COL/ICDE Chair in OER.
Celeste McLaughlin, Advisor, Jisc RSC Scotland.
Ian Stuart, Educator seconded to the Scottish Government
Peter Suber, director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication and Harvard Open Access Project.
Joe Wilson, Head of New Ventures, Scottish Qualifications Authority
Practitioners should be able to validate OERs against available advice and guidance to ensure that the resources they release/share are as accessible as reasonably possible beyond their own typical cohorts. Some level of accessibility audit (e.g. self-check questionnaire against common issues)should be supported by the repository network before a resource is accepted.
This declaration is undated. When was it released?
Interesting declaration. My suggestion would be to add a paragraph related to Open Recognition (http://www.openrecognition.org) as it is a key component to education itself, employment and social inclusion. Without open recognition, can we say that there is real open learning?
Hi Serge, thank you got your comment. The Declaration already makes reference to “open assessment and accreditation practices” (para 17 & 12). If we update the Declaration we could change this to “open recognition, accreditation and assessment practices.”
Thanks Lorna. That would be an improvement. It might be useful to go a bit further and try to elicit the fact that assessment is ancillary to certain forms of recognition and that accreditation is only one of the many modalities of ‘formal’ recognition. Opening recognition goes beyond formal recognition and includes ‘informal recognition.’ To be really open, educational institutions should facilitate and ‘recognise’ informal recognition.
I submit that “open assessment and accreditation practices” should also include “open recognition practices” to make for a more equitable power structure. Not just institutions or organisations, but individuals, should have the power to recognise.
In this regard, please see the Bologna Open Recognition Declaration, launched in Bologna of all places at ePIC 2016.
We recognise that Scotland is a leader in open educational practices and we would welcome representative participation at ePIC 2018 in Paris in October (epic.openrecognition.org).
Suggest you go further to include “virtuous circle” Open Education Practices in partnership with external bodies and sectors such as those explored by R. Macintyre and OU Scotland with the renewable energy sector.
Apologies if this seems obvious, but it’s crucial to get beyond an educational institution-centric view of openness. And to get beyond resources to include knowledge and practice; a broader perspective on what “education” means.
By the wya, thanks for the bog post that led me to this valuable document:
Changing Perspectives on OER
Greetings from New Zealand
As UNESCO, COL & ICDE Chair in OER working in the Edinburgh of the South (Dunedin) – I wish to compliment our Scottish colleagues on an outstanding open declaration. Great to see that you haven’t forgotten to apply an open license as in the case of other initiatives in this space 😉
I was particularly pleased to see the use of “open education” as an umbrella concept incorporating aspects like OER, OEP and Open Access.
Well done team Scotland !
Where do I sign the declaration? … can’t wait to see the final product.
Many thanks for your support and encouragement. While we fully support the Paris OER Declaration, we thought it would be beneficial to extend the Scottish declaration to encompass “open education” in the widest sense. It remains to be seen whether we can get institutional senior managers, the funding council and the Government to support this declaration, but we hope at the very least this will raise the profile of open education in Scotland and help to engage the community.
This version of the declaration is still a draft but if you’d like to sign it, you can add your name in a comment on paragraph 17.
Very best wishes
Dear Colleagues, congratulations to your great initiative, which I hope will become a huge success! I would like to make two general comments:First I personally would love to see a library participating as well! Libraries can contribute to the OER movement by providing high quality metadata for OER and hosting OER repositories. They therefore should be considered as an important stakeholder and an essential component of every OER-ecosystem.Secondly, my dear hbz-colleague Adrian Pohl wrote a „Library empowerment manifesto“ which I like very much. It might be interesting for you to have a look at it, since it takes a quite different approach than the Open Scotland Declaration, so it might be worth comparing both of them. All the bestJan
April 13, 2018 at 10:43 pm
See in context
April 13, 2018 at 10:17 pm
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April 27, 2017 at 2:02 pm
April 29, 2016 at 8:43 pm
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November 21, 2014 at 6:20 pm